Augmented Reality for Vehicle-Driver Communication: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Capabilities for automated driving system (ADS)-equipped vehicles have been expanding over the past decade. Research has explored integrating augmented reality (AR) interfaces in ADS-equipped vehicles to improve drivers’ situational awareness, performance, and trust. This paper systematically reviewed AR visualizations for in-vehicle vehicle-driver communication from 2012 to 2022. The review first identified meta-data and methodological trends before aggregating findings from distinct AR interfaces and corresponding subjective and objective measures. Prominent subjective measures included acceptance, trust, and user experience; objective measures comprised various driving behavior or eye-tracking metrics. Research more often evaluated simulated AR interfaces, presented through windshields, and communicated object detection or intended maneuvers, in level 2 ADS. For object detection, key visualizations included bounding shapes, highlighting, or symbols. For intended route, mixed results were found for world-fixed verse screen-fixed arrows. Regardless of the AR design, communicating the ADS’ actions or environmental elements was beneficial to drivers, though presenting clear, relevant information was more favorable. Gaps in the literature that yet to be addressed include longitudinal effects, impaired visibility, contextual user needs, system reliability, and, most notably, inclusive design. Regardless, the review supports that integrating AR interfaces in ADS-equipped vehicles can lead to higher trust, acceptance, and safer driving performances.

Publication
Safety
Liam Kettle
Liam Kettle
UX & Human Factors Researcher